Sunday October 29, 2017 | 3:00PM (Pre-concert talk at 2:15)
Chan Shun Concert Hall at the Chan Centre for the Performing Arts | Map
Monteverdi’s Orfeo is the first unqualified masterpiece of operatic history. Full of dramatic word painting, narrative urgency, rich orchestration of exotic instruments as well as exquisite writing for vocal ensemble, it feels as fresh and full of relevance as it must have in the early 17th century. Monteverdi specialist and GRAMMY winner Stephen Stubbs leads his own ensemble, Pacific MusicWorks, in a concert version featuring Vancouver’s Colin Balzer in the title role.
‘The man is a genius. Oh, I meant Stubbs. But Monteverdi, too, was no slouch.’ – The Seattle Times
Supported by the Drance Family in honour of Stephen and Betty Drance and José Verstappen
After the opening Toccata, the Prologue presents La Musica, who greets the noble audience, praises the power of Music, and invites the onlookers to listen to the story of Orfeo.
Nymphs and shepherds sing joyously in anticipation of the marriage of Orfeo and Euridice, and the couple sing of their love for each other. After dances of celebration, Euridice and Sylvia leave the company to prepare for the ceremony, while the nymphs and shepherds continue their festivities.
Orfeo sings with his friends of his new found joy, and praises the natural beauty of the Arcadian surroundings in which he has found Euridice. Silvia breaks into their rejoicing to tell the terrible news of Euridice’s death after being bitten by a serpent. Devastated by her account, Orfeo vows to descend to Hades to reclaim Euridice, or to join her in death. As he departs, the company laments their grief at the loss of both the lovers.
Orfeo is led by the allegorical figure of Hope to the banks of the river Styx, across which lies the Underworld, but then he must continue alone. Caronte, the guardian boatman, appears in front of him and blocks his path. Orfeo invokes all the power of his singing to convince Caronte to let him enter the Underworld, but the boatman is unmoved. Finally the singing lulls the guardian to sleep. Seizing his opportunity, Orfeo steals the boat and rows across the river. A chorus of infernal spirits marks his entrance into Hades and praises his audacity.
In the Underworld, Proserpina, wife of the ruler Plutone, has been moved by the prayers and laments of Orfeo as he roams in search of his lost love, and pleads with her husband to restore Euridice to him. Her husband, touched by her tender entreaties, decrees that Orfeo may lead Euridice home, but must not look at her while still in the Underworld or she will be lost for all eternity. Orfeo appears leading Euridice, and sings praises to the power of his lyre that has led to her redemption, but gradually, doubts creep into his mind that he is being tricked, and he glances back; infernal spirits immediately pronounce the sentence and Euridice, in despair, is lost forever. An infernal chorus proclaims that Orfeo could conquer Hell but not himself.
Returning alone to the scene of his former joy, Orfeo laments his loss to Eco. He recalls the virtues of Euridice and vows never to love another woman. His father, Apollo, God of Music, descends and comforts Orfeo, and offers to lead him to eternal life and glory in Heaven, where he may see the likeness of Euridice in the sun and stars. As Orfeo and Apollo rise to Heaven singing, the chorus proclaims Orfeo’s celestial honour and declare that virtue will be justly rewarded, and a festive Moresca ends the fable.
Written by Thomas Forrest Kelly for a performance of L’Orfeo by the Boston Early Music Festival in 2012.
Tomorrow evening the Most Serene Lord the Prince is to sponsor a play in the main room in the apartments which the Most Serene Lady of Ferrara had the use of. It should be most unusual, since all the actors are to sing their parts; it is said on all sides that it will be a great success. No doubt I shall be driven to attend out of sheer curiosity, unless I am prevented from getting in by the lack of space.
Carlo Magno’s 1607 letter to his brother, excerpted above, explains why it is hard for us to hear Monteverdi’s L’Orfeo in the same way as its original audience did. For us, Orfeo stands at the head of the long history of opera; it is in a tradition that includes Handel, Steffani, Lully, Mattheson, Mozart, Verdi, Wagner, and Strauss. And in that context it stands up for itself very well indeed; it is full of beautiful music, it requires passionate, lyrical, and florid singing, and it can make us weep with the best of them.
And yet it’s not an opera at all. There was no such thing in 1607. It’s a play; and for its creators it’s an attempt to re-create the power of classical Greek tragedy. Orfeo tells a Classical tale, and in a time in which Classical literature was being rediscovered and newly valued, scholars and intellectuals wanted to know what it was that gave such affective power to Classical theater. Part of the effect, they surmised, was that Classical Greek actors sang their parts, to the accompaniment of the ancient kithara, a plucked string instrument. So if we have our actors sing, and accompany them on, say a souped-up version of the chitarra (as we’d say in Italian), a big one, a chitarrone, we might well hope to achieve the effect that Greek tragedy had on its own audiences.
So Orfeo at its origin was an “early-music” performance, an attempt to recapture the sounds and the effects of the distant past, just as is the present performance by Pacific MusicWorks. We are evoking a performance of 400 years ago that itself sought to evoke a performance more than a millenium earlier still.
As spectators, we would be expecting a play. But the novelty about this play is that, as Carlo Magno says, all the actors sing their parts. We have a word for plays in which everybody sings—we call it opera; but that didn’t really exist. What a novelty it must have seemed! The singing was something added to a poetic libretto full of charm and literary delight, telling a story that we already know, but in newly-created elevated language.
Monteverdi’s job is to figure out how to make that singing contribute to the depth, the expressiveness, the power of the drama. And he is the perfect person for the job, in the perfect place to accomplish it.
First off, Monteverdi adopts the new stile recitativo, the reciting style, employed by some musical experimenters down in Florence in the last few years. This is a means of delivering words in spoken rhythm, at about the speed an actor would speak them, but with a melodic line and a simple chordal accompaniment; it was a Florentine invention, but Monteverdi turned it to spectacularly effective use, here and elsewhere.
There’s a risk that we will find recitative tedious—especially if we expect Mozart arias or Verdi heroines. But in the context of a play, it’s a magical addition, and Monteverdi is able to inflect it with amazing variety and skill, using harmony, dissonance, melody, rhythm—to make it always new and interesting.
Another way to avoid tedium is to have songs. And there are lots of songs, and dances, and instrumental pieces, in the course of Orfeo. The story is laid out to make this possible.
* * *
What better subject for a fable told in music than the story of Orpheus? He is, after all, the semi-god who is the greatest musician who ever lived, the son of Apollo, god of the sun, of music, of balance; a story about Orpheus will give plenty of occasion for music and singing. It is set in that mythical Arcadia where nymphs and shepherds frolic, sing, dance, without any concern for keeping watch over their flocks . . . .
So there is plenty of occasion for song as well as speech, and this presents Monteverdi with a challenge and an opportunity. Because if this is a play in which the actors sing their parts, we are to understand that what is happening on stage is the way things work: when people sing in that world, they are speaking. Fine: and if we like it, we stay. But what happens when, in a world in which people are already singing, somebody on stage says: “Orfeo, sing us a song!” How can this happen, if everybody is already singing? This is, of course, one of the major challenges of opera, and one of the major challenges of music with words. Words require one kind of delivery, and music generally requires another.
Monteverdi rises to this challenge beautifully; musically there is a whole range of singing, from absolutely syllabic speech-declamation through the most ornate and virtuosic musical lyricism.
Even though the room is small, the resources are princely. Monteverdi was able to make full use of the musical personnel of the Court of Mantua; he was its chief musician, he hired and fired, and he knew to the tiniest detail the abilities of his colleagues. The Rubini brothers, expert violinists, get their chances to show off; superstar cornetto players; an extraordinary double harp; they all get solo turns in the play’s central moment: Orfeo’s passionate, and virtuosic, appeal to Caronte, the gatekeeper of Hell, to allow him passage to the land of the dead, ruled over by Pluto.
* * *
The myth of Orpheus has been told for a long time and in many ways. It continues to be told, and will surely be told for a long time to come. Like so many myths, it survives because it reminds us of a universal truth. Orpheus falls in love with the mortal Euridice; she dies (in this telling, from a venomous snakebite), and Orpheus does what no mortal can, and pursues her to the realm of the dead, where Pluto agrees to release Euridice to him, but on one condition (we all know this story): as he leads her out of Hades, he must not look back to see whether she is following. And of course he does; who wouldn’t? The story of Orpheus is a human story re-enacted by every human every day: my heart tells me to look back, my head reminds me that I must not, what shall I do? (Do I really have to get up and go to work this morning? Couldn’t I just sleep a few minutes more?)
After the passionate scene in which Orfeo loses Euridice forever and is ejected from the lower world, he wanders through the lands he used to love but which now remind him of the lost Euridice; he sings a long and very beautiful soliloquy, in which he begins to speak to the echo that returns to him from the distant mountains. It is a mad scene; he begins by singing the praises of Euridice, he compares her to other women, he loses all control and despises all of womankind as hateful; that is the point where Ovid—and the printed poem we were holding in our hands, if we were at the first performance—calls for a band of wild women, worshippers of Bacchus, to tear him limb from limb in revenge for his hatred of women.
But a miracle happens! Just at the point where Orfeo has lost his reason, Apollo appears overhead in a cloud—a deus ex machina–and comes to calm his demented son. He takes him up to heaven, where he can be together forever with Euridice among the stars. A mighty duet, a chorus of amazement, and a final dance conclude this fable in music. What a surprise ending!
The whole story is also an expression of Renaissance neo-Platonist philosophy, surely appealing to the learned members of the Mantuan Academy for whom this play was meant.
We exist between two worlds—that of Apollo overhead, where light and rationality and balance pervade all, and that of Pluto below, where passion overwhelms everything else. It is in these three planes that this story takes place, and when Orfeo gets out of balance, when his passion overpowers his reason, it calls forth divine intervention from the god of balance in all things. The neo-Platonists of Renaissance Italy would have recognized, perhaps better than we, the extent to which this entertainment is a reflection of the thinking of its time.
Even in our time, though, the story is resonant, and the music is beautiful. We are in a room in a palace (Chan Centre for the Performing Arts) before a small and elite audience (you), and we have a story to tell, a fable in music. Don’t look back.
TEXTS AND TRANSLATIONS
Stephen Stubbs, music director
After a successful thirty-year career in Europe, Stephen Stubbs returned to his native Seattle in 2006 as one of the world’s most respected lutenists, conductors, and baroque opera specialists. Before his return, he was based in Bremen, Germany, where he was Professor of Lute and Performance Practices at the Hochschule für Künste. Stephen also spent a lot of time on the road as a guest conductor and performer.
Together with Erin Headley he started the ensemble Tragicomedia in 1987, which toured throughout Europe, Japan and the US, as well as recording numerous CD’s for various recording companies. Tragicomedia has also been the continuo team for the Boston Early Music Festival since 1997. Stephen is the Festival’s permanent artistic co-director along with his long time colleague Paul O’Dette. Stephen and Paul are also the musical directors of all BEMF operas under the brilliant leadership of BEMF’s stage director in residence Gilbert Blin. BEMF’s recordings of Conradi’s Ariadne, Lully’s Thesee, and Psyché were nominated for Grammy awards in 2005, 2007, and 2009 respectively.
In 2007 Stephen established his new production company, Pacific MusicWorks, based in Seattle. Pacific MusicWorks reflects his lifelong interest in both early music and contemporary performance. PMW’s first staging in spring 2009 reflected both interests, presenting Claudio Monteverdi’s 1641 opera The Return of Ulysses in a staging using life-sized puppets designed and brought to life by the Handspring Puppet Company of South Africa, and projections designed by the world-renowned graphic and performance artist and stage director William Kentridge. This inaugural production was universally lauded by critics and public alike. Subsequent productions have included a successful collaboration with Seattle Chamber Players/On the Boards for a double bill of Heiner Goebbel’s Songs of Wars I have seen and Monteverdi’s Combattimento di Tancredi e Clorinda, a collaboration with Seattle Dance Project and Anna Mansbridge performing staged 17th Century madrigals for three sopranos and three dancers, as well as performances of the Monteverdi Vespers with Concerto Palatino, described by the Seattle Times as “utterly thrilling” and “of a quality you are unlikely to encounter anywhere else in the world”. The 2013-14 season included a special collaboration with the Seattle Symphony in the form of what was called “the Passions Project” in which the Symphony presented the St. Matthew Passion, and then (with the same group of vocal soloists) PMW presented our first performance of the St. John Passion with our own baroque orchestra. In addition to his ongoing commitments to Pacific MusicWorks and the Boston Early Music Festival, other engagements have recently taken Stephen to Bilbao’s opera house in Spain to conduct Handels’ Giulio Cesare and Gluck’s Orfeo. In 2007 he returned to the Netherlands Opera, Amsterdam, where he directed Monteverdi’s L’Orfeo. 2011 saw his debut conducting the Seattle Symphony Orchestra performing Vivaldi’s Four Seasons and he returned in 2012 to conduct Handel’s Messiah. In 2011-2012 he conducted Monteverdi’s Poppea with Opera UCLA as well as Charpentier’s La Descente d’Orphee in Boston with co-director Paul O’Dette for BEMF. Other recent appearances included Handel’s L’Allegro and Mozart’s Magic Flute for the Hawaii Performing Arts Festival, Monteverdi’s L’Orfeo for BEMF, Handel’s Il Trionfo del Tempo, and an evening of Bach Cantata’s for Pacific MusicWorks. He made his conducting debut with the Edmonton Symphony performing Handel’s Messiah in 2012, and conducted Bach’s St. Matthew Passion in Denver with the Baroque Chamber Orchestra of Colorado. In 2014 he made his debut with Opera Omaha conducting Handel’s Agrippina in a production by his frequent collaborator James Darrah.
Stephen has an extensive discography as conductor and as a solo lutenist of well over 100 CDs, many of which have received international acclaim and awards. In the summer of 2013 Stephen led performances of Handel’s first opera Almira at the Boston Early Music Festival, then headed to Bremen with the BEMF team to record CDs of BEMF’s productions of Handel’sAcis and Galathea, and Charpentier’s La Descente d’Orphee. He then returned to Hawaii to conduct Mozart’s Cosi fan Tutte for the Hawaii Performing Arts Festival. In November he returned to Bremen with the BEMF team to record their production of Steffani’s Niobe, followed by a live performance of the opera for ARTE television which was streamed for six months and became the most watched production on their site. Also in 2013, Stephen Stubbs was appointed Senior Artist in Residence and faculty member of the School of Music at the University of Washington. The first collaboration between the University and Pacific MusicWorks was Handel’s Semele in May 2014. For that production Stephen was joined by his colleague, stage director James Darrah. The same team will present Mozart’s Magic Flute in May 2015.
A full discography and detailed performance calendar can be seen at stephenstubbs.com. Stephen Stubbs is represented by Schwalbe and Partners (schwalbeandpartners.com).
Pacific MusicWorks (PMW) works to bring internationally renowned artists into collaboration with leading musicians from the Northwest, and to foster creative dialogue among artists from a broad array of fields and cultures. The heart of its repertoire is 17th- and 18th-century vocal music, but performances range from the Renaissance to innovative contemporary works and from chamber music to fully staged operas.
In 2007, celebrated lutenist and conductor Stephen Stubbs, a specialist in 17th and 18th century vocal music, returned to Seattle from Bremen, Germany, and founded PMW. Stubbs, the 2015 GRAMMY Award winner as conductor of Best Opera Recording, and harpist Maxine Eilander also brought with them their highly successful Accademia d’Amore, a summer institute that trains young singers in Baroque opera annually drawing students from Europe and the Americas. Later association with the Cornish Institute and since 2013 with the University of Washington have provided continuing platforms for their extensive educational commitment.
In Seattle, Stubbs immediately established an impressive performance record in 2008 and 2009 by musically directing two Monteverdi masterpieces, L’Incoronazione di Poppea and Il Ritorno d’Ulisse in a production by South African artist William Kentridge with which he launched Pacific MusicWorks. Stubbs and PMW, invited to be artists in residence at St. James Cathedral have produced regular oratorio performances there including acclaimed cyclical performances of Monteverdi’s 1610 Vespers.
In collaboration with Seattle Symphony conductor Ludovic Morlot, Stubbs conceived and executed ͞The Passions Project͟ in 2013 with Morlot conducting the Symphony in the St.Matthew Passion, followed by Stubbs conducting the PMW Orchestra in the St. John Passion, both performances using the same international roster of vocal soloists. In 2016, PMW in collaboration with the University of Washington, produced an opulent staging of Gluck’s Orphée. This production featured tenor Aaron Sheehan’s role debut as Orphée, and pointed the way toward a March 2017 project featuring the GRAMMY- winning tenor in a program entitled Handel’s Tenor, which was subsequently recorded and is set for release in 2018.
Dark Horse Consort
The early music ensemble Dark Horse Consort is dedicated to unearthing the majestic late Renaissance and early Baroque repertoire for brass instruments. Inspired by the bronze horse statues in Venice’s famed St. Mark’s Basilica, the ensemble attempts to recreate the glorious sounds of composers such as Giovanni Gabrieli, Claudio Monteverdi and Heinrich Schütz. Dark Horse often expands to include vocalists and strings, which when combined recreates the rapturous kaleidoscope that was the sound of the early 17th century instrumental ensemble.
Dark Horse Consort has been featured on the San Francisco Early Music Series, the Boston Early Music Festival, the Renaissance and Baroque Society (Pittsburgh), The Academy of Early Music (Ann Arbor) in addition to multiple appearances throughout North America, including collaborations with vocal and instrumental groups such as The Toronto Consort, Blue Heron Choir (Boston), The Rose Ensemble (Minneapolis), Piffaro (Philadelphia), Tenet (NYC), Spire (Kansas City), Catacoustic Consort (Cincinnati), Bach Society Houston, Bach Collegium San Diego, Bach Vespers at Holy Trinity Lutheran (NYC), Seicento Baroque (Boulder), and the Clarion Music Society (NYC).
Upcoming performances include Monteverdi Vespers with the American Baroque Soloists in San Francisco, and Monteverdi’s L’Orfeo with Pacific MusicWorks in Seattle.
“BEMF Plus Dark Horse: Triumph” (Boston Musical Intelligencer)
“The magnificent trombones and cornetti…one of the best 1610 Vespers performances I have ever heard.” (Boston Musical Intelligencer)
“The Dark Horse Consort players were splendid.” (Boston Globe)
“The small orchestra played very well, notably…the cornet and Baroque trombone ensemble Dark Horse Consort, beautifully in tune, playing with subtlety and shading” (New York Arts)
“stellar music ensemble.” (New York Times)
Named by The New Yorker as a notable classical performance of 2013 (for a performance at the MET entitled, The Grand Tour)